## How to Calculate Power in Series and Parallel Circuits

In this article, we will discuss how to calculate power in series and parallel circuits. We will start with a review of the basic concepts of electrical power, and then we will show you how to calculate power in both series and parallel circuits. ### Electrical Power Electrical power is the rate at which electrical energy is converted into another form of energy, such as heat or light. The unit of electrical power is the watt (W), which is equal to one joule per second (J/s). The power of an electrical circuit is given by the following equation: ``` P = IV ``` where: * P is the power in watts (W) * I is the current in amps (A) * V is the voltage in volts (V) In a series circuit, the current is the same throughout the circuit. This means that the power dissipated by each resistor in a series circuit is the same. The total power dissipated by the circuit is equal to the sum of the powers dissipated by each resistor. ``` Ptotal = P1 + P2 + P3 + ... + Pn ``` In a parallel circuit, the voltage is the same across each resistor. This means that the power dissipated by each resistor is proportional to its resistance. The total power dissipated by the circuit is equal to the sum of the powers dissipated by each resistor. ``` Ptotal = P1 + P2 + P3 + ... + Pn ``` ### Calculating Power in Series Circuits To calculate the power in a series circuit, you need to know the current and the voltage. The current can be calculated using Ohm's law: ``` I = V/R ``` where: * I is the current in amps (A) * V is the voltage in volts (V) * R is the resistance in ohms (Ω) Once you know the current, you can calculate the power using the equation: ``` P = IV ``` ### Calculating Power in Parallel Circuits To calculate the power in a parallel circuit, you need to know the current and the voltage. The current can be calculated using the following equation: ``` I = V/Rtotal ``` where: * I is the current in amps (A) * V is the voltage in volts (V) * Rtotal is the total resistance of the circuit in ohms (Ω) Once you know the current, you can calculate the power using the equation: ``` P = IV ``` ### Example Problems #### Example 1: Series Circuit A series circuit has two resistors, R1 = 10 ohms and R2 = 20 ohms. The circuit is connected to a voltage source of 12 volts. To calculate the current in the circuit, we use Ohm's law: ``` I = V/R ``` ``` I = 12 V / (10 Ω + 20 Ω) = 3 A ``` To calculate the power dissipated by each resistor, we use the equation: ``` P = IV ``` ``` P1 = 12 V * 3 A = 36 W P2 = 12 V * 3 A = 36 W ``` The total power dissipated by the circuit is: ``` Ptotal = P1 + P2 = 36 W + 36 W = 72 W ``` #### Example 2: Parallel Circuit A parallel circuit has three resistors, R1 = 10 ohms, R2 = 20 ohms, and R3 = 30 ohms. The circuit is connected to a voltage source of 12 volts. To calculate the current in the circuit, we use the following equation: ``` I = V/Rtotal ``` ``` I = 12 V / (10 Ω + 20 Ω + 30 Ω) = 2 A ``` To calculate the power dissipated by each resistor, we use the equation: ``` P = IV ``` ``` P1 = 12 V * 2 A = 24 W P2 = 12 V * 2 A = 24 W P3 = 12 V * 2 A = 24 W ``` The total power dissipated by the circuit is: ``` Ptotal = P1 + P2 + P3 = 24 W + 24 W + 24 W = 72 W ```Simple Series Circuits And Parallel Electronics Textbook

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